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July Seminole War Events

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I am getting ready to take apart my computer. So if something goes horribly wrong, then I should go ahead and post the "this day in history" for Seminole War events for July.

1 July 1836 - Creek War Chief Jim Henry surrenders. General Scott declares the Creek War in Georgia & Alabama over, but his announcement is premature. 84 year old Neamathla and hundreds of his warriors are marched 90 miles in chains from Fort Mitchell to Montgomery, Alabama. Scott’s report estimates that there are only about 200 Creeks still at large in the swamps or on their way to Florida.

3 July 1836 - The Battle of Chickasawhachee Swamp in Baker County, Georgia ends with defeat for the Creeks. Georgia Militia soldiers rout the Indians from an almost impenetrable island in the swamp and secure all the Indian’s supplies and food.

4 July 1841 - Coacoochee is held as prisoner to convince other Seminoles to surrender.

7 July 1837 - Skirmish between Creek Indians and the local militia on the Shoal River (Okaloosa County.)

10 July 1836 - Battle of Brushy Creek. The Georgia militia pursues and attacks Creeks retreating into Florida. At the beginning of the battle, the Indians have the advantage, but with the arrival of more troops, they are forced to retreat and disappear into the swamp. The Creeks left in such a hurry that babies were found abandoned and dead.

The same day there is a skirmish on the Alapaha River in Georgia.

12 July 1840 - Skirmish at Cow Creek Hammock.

12 July 1849 - Four renegade Indians attack a settlement north of Fort Pierce.

13 July 1840 - Skirmish near Fort Pleasant; two soldiers killed.

16 July 1840 - Indians attack Fort Russell.

16 July 1841 - Skirmish at an Indian camp on the Oklawaha River. One soldier is killed while charging alone into the camp.

17 July 1812 - The Florida Indians finally have enough of the raids by the American plantation owners. The Spanish governor allows them to attack Georgia with the aid of former slaves. The Seminoles start by attacking illegally established American settlements on the St. Johns River.

17 July 1841 - Skirmish near Camp Ogden.

17 July 1849 - A group of four renegade Indians attack the store on Paynes Creek, killing two clerks and chasing away the others. This starts the “Panic of 1849” when many forts in Florida are reactivated with a threat of another war. It is never known if the renegades acted alone, or were part of an aborted Indian uprising.

19 July 1836 - Battle of Welika Pond near Micanopy. 250 Seminoles under Osceola ambush 52 troops guarding a supply wagon, but the troops defend themselves until reinforcements arrive.

21 July 1839 - Skirmish “between Forts Frank Brooke and Andrews.”

22 July 1813 - Battle at Tuckabatchee. Red sticks attack the town and drive off the Creeks who are friendly to the United States. This is the beginning of the First Creek War.

23 July 1836 - Spanish Indians attack and burn the Cape Florida lighthouse.

23 July 1839 - Seminoles under Chakaika & Hospetarke burn a trading post on the Caloosahatchee River during a night raid. Many soldiers are killed, but Colonel William S. Harney escapes. General Macomb’s agreement is now considered voided.

24 July 1836 - Skirmish near Wesley Chapel, Stewart County, Georgia. Creeks defeat and drive away a company of Georgia Militia.

25 July 1836 - Battle of Nochaway. A Company of Georgia Militia under Major Jernigan pursues the Creeks and engages them in a fierce fight in “Echo-a-noch-away” swamp on Nochaway Creek. The soldiers are out numbered and forced to withdraw from the battle.

26 July 1824 - Governor DuVal removes Neamathla as head chief of the Seminoles and has him replaced by Tuckose Emathla (John Hicks).

26 July 1840 - Skirmish near New River Inlet.

26 July 1857 - An army boat company captures a Seminole camp on the Kissimmee River near Lake Okeechobee.

27 July 1813 - Battle of Burnt Corn Creek in Southern Alabama. Alabama Militia ambushes Creek Chief Peter McQueen’s supply train coming back from Pensacola with 1000 lbs. of gunpowder. The Creeks are driven off, but they return and retake the supplies from the militia and scatter the force. The militia soldiers who attacked McQueen’s caravan were from Fort Mims northeast of Mobile.

27 July 1816 – An American ship on the Apalachicola River comes under fire from Negro Fort, a fortification of escaped slaves and Indians that was built and supplied by the British at the end of the War of 1812. A red-hot cannon shot from the American ship hits the fort’s powder magazine and immediately destroys the fort in a huge explosion. The American Creek Indian allies loot the remains. Most all the 300 people who were inside the fort are killed instantly by the explosion.

27 July 1836 - Georgia militia forces continue to battle the Creeks in the swamp of Nochaway Creek. It is a very hard fight until the soldiers attack the hammock from two different sides and drive out the Creeks.

27 July 1836 - Battle on Travers plantation on the St. Johns River. The army surprises a group of Seminoles but has to retreat when they are out-gunned.

28 July 1836 - Skirmish at the mouth of Black Creek at Ridgely’s Mill. A group of soldiers bringing horses from St. Augustine to Garey’s Ferry are attacked by a large number of Indians.

29 July 1822 - Governor DuVal issues a proclamation against whites doing unethical trade against the Indians or settling near Indian towns, but is powerless to enforce it.

29 July 1840 - Skirmish on the Wekiva River in central Florida. Soldiers locate and overrun Coacoochee’s camp.
Current Location:
the hammock
Current Mood:
accomplished accomplished
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On July 5th, 2009 05:11 pm (UTC), indianrivguy commented:
Renegade Indian attacks on Indian River July 12, 1849
Mornin' Chris! I hope everything goes well with your computer maintenance, I get paralyzed with fear anytime I have to deal with mine. Thanks for the July list, I appreciate the hard work involved in a chronological list as I have put together a few myself. I am familiar with the July 12, 1849 attacks and would like to share some sources and make some comments. I live in an area that was forever influenced by those attacks, Indian river country. My own families first attempt at a homestead in Florida 1871 was on the abandoned homestead of Captain Davis from the Indian River Colony.

Here is a link to The Indian Scare of 1849 for those who may not have it.


the link in the Index of Tequesta Magazine seems broke but the above one should work, I just manipulated the address. There is also a great article by Nathan Shappee in this issue, Fort Dallas and the Naval Depot on Key Biscayne 1836-1926. The index for Tequesta online is;


I have saved the entire collection so I don't need to be online to access the stories.. this is a wonderful source. I am personally hoping to be published there someday and become the third generation of my family to do so.

I am working on saving the Florida Historical Magazine collection now, it is also a fabulous source.


I digress.. there is another good source of this account might not be known to those not interested in Indian river country.


Florida Historical Quarterly
Volume LXX, Number 3
January 1992

Brayton was a member of the Indian River Colony, a group of pioneers taking advantage of the Armed Occupation Act of 1842.(AOA)In a collection of letters to his wife, we get a first hand account of the attack on John Barker and William Russell, July 12, 1849 by the same group of renegade Indians that attacked the Kennedy and Darling trading post on the banks of Payne's Creek on July 17th, 1849. (I have their names somewhere where I could retrieve them and have forgotten where they are.:( )This was important in as the settlers all left their homesteads unoccupied thus voiding their AOA patents. Only a handful returned soon enough to satisfy the government, making good their claims.

The creation of Fort Capron was a direct result of the overreaction to this renegade attack. Fort Capron was built very nearly on top of the spot where Barker was killed and Russel shot.(and roughly four miles north of Fort Pierce built during the Second Seminole War and burnt to the ground after it was abandoned by the Indians.) The location being just north of the city of Fort Pierce,directly across from the Indian river inlet, the only natural inlet on the Indian River lagoon open at this time.

Indian river country was essentially unoccupied from this point with but a few exceptions until the early 1870's. The Colony that had fallen apart was on the verge of creating markets for their turtles, oysters, pineapple, orange and truck and were ever so close to making it when the bottom fell out due to the attacks.
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On July 6th, 2009 10:31 am (UTC), seminolewar replied:
Re: Renegade Indian attacks on Indian River July 12, 1849
I have digital copies of the FHQ. At least dealing with the Seminole War. I didn't try to save every issue because it just takes too much time. I didn't know that Tequesta was out there, too.
There was one article, and I can't remember if it was in Tequesta or the FHQ, about the identity of the attackers. Maybe it is the one you have the link above. It was questioning the identities of the attackers, that there may have been more involved than just the five, and that it was an aborted uprising. It seems like a long distance to go in just five days for the two attacks.
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